Manual browser: faithd(8)
|FAITHD(8)||System Manager's Manual||FAITHD(8)|
NAMEfaithd — FAITH IPv6/v4 translator daemon
|faithd||[-dp] [-f configfile] service [serverpath [serverargs]]|
DESCRIPTIONThe faithd utility provides IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relaying. It can only be used on an IPv4/v6 dual stack router.
When faithd receives TCPv6 traffic, it will relay the TCPv6 traffic to TCPv4. The destination for the relayed TCPv4 connection will be determined by the last 4 octets of the original IPv6 destination. For example, if
2001:0db8:4819:ffff:: is reserved for faithd, and the TCPv6 destination address is
2001:0db8:4819:ffff::0a01:0101, the traffic will be relayed to IPv4 destination
To use the faithd translation service, an IPv6 address prefix must be reserved for mapping IPv4 addresses into. The kernel must be properly configured to route all the TCP connections toward the reserved IPv6 address prefix into the faith(4) pseudo interface, using the route(8) command. Also, sysctl(8) should be used to configure net.inet6.ip6.keepfaith to 1.
The faithd utility needs special name-to-address translation logic, so that hostnames gets resolved into the special IPv6 address prefix. For small-scale installations, use hosts(5); For large-scale installations, it is useful to have a DNS server with special address translation support. An implementation called totd is available at http://www.dillema.net/software/totd.html. Make sure you do not propagate translated DNS records over to normal DNS, as it can cause severe problems.
Daemon modeWhen faithd is invoked as a standalone program, faithd will daemonize itself. faithd will listen to TCPv6 port service. If TCPv6 traffic to port service is found, it relays the connection.
Since faithd listens to TCP port service, it is not possible to run local TCP daemons for port service on the router, using inetd(8) or other standard mechanisms. By specifying serverpath to faithd, you can run local daemons on the router. The faithd utility will invoke ia local daemon at serverpath if the destination address is a local interface address, and will perform translation to IPv4 TCP in other cases. You can also specify serverargs for the arguments for the local daemon.
The following options are available:
- Debugging information will be generated using syslog(3).
- -f configfile
- Specify a configuration file for access control. See below.
- Use privileged TCP port number as source port, for IPv4 TCP connection toward final destination. For relaying ftp(1) this flag is not necessary as special program code is supplied.
faithd will relay both normal and out-of-band TCP data. It is capable of emulating TCP half close as well. faithd includes special support for protocols used by ftp(1). When translating the FTP protocol, faithd translates network level addresses in
Inactive sessions will be disconnected in 30 minutes, to prevent stale sessions from chewing up resources. This may be inappropriate for some services (should this be configurable?).
inetd modeWhen faithd is invoked via inetd(8), faithd will handle connections passed from standard input. If the connection endpoint is in the reserved IPv6 address prefix, faithd will relay the connection. Otherwise, faithd will invoke a service-specific daemon like telnetd(8), by using the command argument passed from inetd(8).
faithd determines operation mode by the local TCP port number, and enables special protocol handling whenever necessary/possible. For example, if faithd is invoked via inetd(8) on the FTP port, it will operate as an FTP relay.
Access controlTo prevent malicious access, faithd implements a simple address-based access control. With /etc/faithd.conf (or configfile specified by -f), faithd will avoid relaying unwanted traffic. The faithd.conf configuration file contains directives of the following format:
If the source address of a query matches src/slen, and the translated destination address matches dst/dlen, deny the connection.
If the source address of a query matches src/slen, and the translated destination address matches dst/dlen, permit the connection.
The directives are evaluated in sequence, and the first matching entry will be effective. If there is no match (if we reach the end of the ruleset) the traffic will be denied.
With inetd mode, traffic may be filtered by using access control functionality in inetd(8).
EXIT STATUSfaithd exits with EXIT_SUCCESS (0) on success, and EXIT_FAILURE (1) on error.
EXAMPLESBefore invoking faithd, the faith(4) interface has to be configured properly.
# sysctl -w net.inet6.ip6.accept_rtadv=0 # sysctl -w net.inet6.ip6.forwarding=1 # sysctl -w net.inet6.ip6.keepfaith=1 # ifconfig faith0 create up # route add -inet6 2001:0db8:4819:ffff:: -prefixlen 96 ::1 # route change -inet6 2001:0db8:4819:ffff:: -prefixlen 96 -ifp faith0
Daemon mode samplesTo translate
telnetservice, and provide no local telnet service, invoke faithd as follows:
# faithd telnet
If you would like to provide local telnet service via telnetd(8) on /usr/libexec/telnetd, use the following command line:
# faithd telnet /usr/libexec/telnetd telnetd
If you would like to pass extra arguments to the local daemon:
# faithd ftp /usr/libexec/ftpd ftpd -l
Here are some other examples. You may need -p if the service checks the source port range.
# faithd ssh # faithd telnet /usr/libexec/telnetd telnetd
inetd mode samplesAdd the following lines into inetd.conf(5).
telnet stream faith/tcp6 nowait root faithd telnetd ftp stream faith/tcp6 nowait root faithd ftpd -l ssh stream faith/tcp6 nowait root faithd /usr/sbin/sshd -i
inetd(8) will open listening sockets with kernel TCP relay support enabled. Whenever a connection comes in, faithd will be invoked by inetd(8). If the connection endpoint is in the reserved IPv6 address prefix. faithd will relay the connection. Otherwise, faithd will invoke service-specific daemon like telnetd(8).
Access control samplesThe following illustrates a simple faithd.conf setting.
# permit anyone from 2001:0db8:ffff::/48 to use the translator, # to connect to the following IPv4 destinations: # - any location except 10.0.0.0/8 and 127.0.0.0/8. # Permit no other connections. # 2001:0db8:ffff::/48 deny 10.0.0.0/8 2001:0db8:ffff::/48 deny 127.0.0.0/8 2001:0db8:ffff::/48 permit 0.0.0.0/0
SEE ALSOfaith(4), route(8), sysctl(8), pkgsrc/net/totd
Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino and Kazu Yamamoto, An IPv6-to-IPv4 transport relay translator, RFC 3142, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3142.txt, June 2001.
HISTORYThe faithd utility first appeared in the WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack kit.
SECURITY CONSIDERATIONSIt is very insecure to use IP-address based authentication, for connections relayed by faithd, and any other TCP relaying services.
Administrators are advised to limit accesses to faithd using faithd.conf, or by using IPv6 packet filters, to protect the faithd service from malicious parties, and to avoid theft of service/bandwidth. IPv6 destination addresses can be limited by carefully configuring routing entries that point to faith(4), using route(8). The IPv6 source address needs to be filtered using packet filters. The documents listed in SEE ALSO have more information on this topic.
|January 9, 2010||NetBSD 7.0|